The Tanack are Japanese Leica copies, made from late 1952 by Tanaka Kōgaku and supplied with Tanar lenses. This article treats the main series of Tanack cameras, from the original Tanack 35 to the Tanack IV-S, whose design is very close to that of the Leica. The company made later attempts at producing more advanced rangefinder cameras: the Tanack SD, inspired by the Nikon S2, and the Tanack V3 and VP, closer to contemporary Canon models.
General description Edit
The first generation of Tanack cameras is copied on the Leica screw mount models, with a horizontally running focal-plane shutter and a screw mount lens. The main difference to the Leica is the hinged back. All the models presumably have the same construction, with four main parts: top casting with exposure frame, bottom casting, front body shell and hinged back.
|Structure of the Tanack IV-S, from Shashin Kōgyō November 1955. (Image rights)|
The position of the controls — advance knob, exposure counter, release button, rewind lever, speed dial and extractable rewind knob — is the same as on the Leica. The shutter always has 1/500 top speed; the company decided to dispense with 1/1000 for economy reasons. The camera is synchronized for flash, via one or two PC sockets at the front.
|Tanack IV-S no.77020, late version. Pictures copyright Jiri Ecer. (Image rights)|
|Viewfinder of the Tanack IV-S, from Shashin Kōgyō November 1955. (Image rights)|
The eyepieces of the viewfinder and rangefinder are close together, as on the Leica IIIb, but the rangefinder has no diopter correction. The rangefinder has 1.5× magnification and the windows are physically spaced by 38mm, giving an effective base of 57mm. Some versions of the Tanar standard lenses focus down to 1.5ft, but the rangefinder is coupled until 3.5ft only. The rangefinder is assembled as a separate unit attached to the main body, at least on the model IV-S. On all the models, a screw is visible next to the viewfinder window, certainly for adjustment.
|Back latch. (Image rights)|
The back is hinged to the right for film loading, as seen by the photographer. It is locked by a lever underneath the camera, on the rewind side, with O and S indications (for Open and Shut). The camera can take preloaded cartridges only, because the configuration of the back does not allow to use refillable Leica cassettes; the company said that this feature was abandoned to keep the camera small enough. The pressure plate is permanently attached to the camera back. The tripod thread is on the advance side, under the camera. The adoption of a hinged back was convenient not only for the user, but also for the manufacturer as well, allowing easier checking of the film to flange distance, of the shutter operation and of the viewfinder field.
|Tanack IV-S no.77020, late version. Pictures copyright Jiri Ecer. (Image rights)|
All the models have the name Tanack engraved in double-struck letters above the viewfinder, together with the company name Tanaka Optical Company Ltd., and sometimes with a model name. The serial number is engraved in front of the accessory shoe, with N° prefix. Some examples are marked Made in Japan underneath, on the advance or rewind side.
The designer of the Tanack was a former employee of Kōgaku Seiki, later Nicca, which was founded by Kumagai Genji and made the Nippon Leica copy during the war. He was perhaps called Tanaka, giving his name to the company, or he might have been Saitō Tomosaburō (齋藤友三郎), member of the Tanaka company who wrote detailed articles on the Tanack IV-S and Tanack V3 in Shashin Kōgyō. The development of the camera started in 1952, and it was first announced to the press in December.
Early models, with separate viewfinder cover Edit
The early Tanack 35 have a top cover made of two parts, as on the Leica models until the IIIb. They also have no strap lugs and a single synch socket, presumably for FP bulbs only. Their main speed dial have the following positions: B, 20–1, 30, 40, 60, 100, 200, 500.
Two main versions exist, with and without slow speeds. The slow speed dial is in front of the body, as on the Leica III, and has T, 1, 2, 4, 8, 20 positions. The cameras with no slow speeds have a round cover instead, with a small leatherette patch. None of these cameras has a model name above the viewfinder cover.
| Tanack 35 no.29185, no slow speeds, Tanar 50mm f/3.5 rigid lens no.29289.|
Picture copyright Jiri Ecer. (Image rights)
Original documents Edit
|Column on the Tanack 35 in the November 1953 special issue of Photo Art. (Image rights)|
The version without slow speeds came first. It was reportedly announced in the December 1952 issue of Ars Camera, under the name "Tanack 35", and was first advertised in the May 1953 issue of the same magazine. The advertisement shows a camera with no slow speeds and a four-digit serial number, perhaps 27x2. It has a collapsible Tanar 50mm f/3.5, and no other lens is listed. The price is not indicated, and the camera is still presented as a new model.
The column in the November 1953 special issue of Photo Art, reproduced on the right, shows the camera with no slow speeds, again called "Tanack 35" only. The pictured camera has a five-digit serial number, perhaps in the 27xxx range, and has the same collapsible Tanar 50mm f/3.5. The price is given as ¥23,800 with that lens.
The version with slow speeds was introduced in Spring 1954, simultaneously with the Tanar 50mm f/2.8 lens. The two versions, with and without slow speeds, were offered concurrently until the beginning of next year, advertisements appearing in Asahi Camera from March 1954 to February 1955. The authorized dealers were Nittō Shashin-yōhin, Takemoto Shōkai, and Chūgai Shashin Shōji (中外写真商事㈱).
The company adopted rather illogical model names, relying on the presence of slow speeds and on the standard lens mounted on the camera. Moreover, the various documents list different naming schemes, some of which were certainly mistaken. The advertisements in Asahi Camera March 1954 and February 1955 shows the following names, which were probably correct:
- IIC, no slow speeds, f/3.5 lens, ¥23,800;
- IIIC, no slow speeds, f/2.8 lens, ¥26,400;
- IIF, with slow speeds, f/3.5 lens, ¥27,200;
- IIIF, with slow speeds, f/2.8 lens, ¥29,800.
That in Asahi Camera January 1955 swaps the definition of the IIIC and IIF, and an October 1955 column in Photo Art retrospectively mentions five versions for the original Tanack 35, called IIC, IIIC, IF, IIF and IIIF. To simplify the description, some authors recently adopted the names "Tanack 35C" and "Tanack 35F", respectively for the cameras without and with slow speeds.
|Advertisements for the Tanack 35 in Asahi Camera January and February 1955. (Image rights)|
Production and variations Edit
Serial numbers for the early Tanack are confirmed in the 27xxx, 28xxx, 29xxx and 54xxx ranges. The original sequence perhaps started at 2700 or 2701 and jumped to five digits after reaching 2799, as indicated by the number 27x2 visible in the early advertisement mentioned above. It is likely that the first two digits "27" correspond to year 27 of the Shōwa era (i.e. 1952), when the first cameras were produced.
| Tanack 35 no.27819, slow speeds, Tanar 50mm f/2.8 lens.|
From Asahi Camera January 1955. (Image rights)
Body no.27819, pictured in the advertisements, is the earliest known so far with slow speeds, and body no.27959 is the oldest surviving example with that feature. The existence of that camera, and the absence of any camera with six-digit number, hint that the sequence seamlessly advanced from 27999 to 28000, perhaps during year 1954 (commercial release of the camera with slow speeds), then from 28999 to 29000: the first two digits are thus roughly related to the year of production, but are no definitive indication. Numbers are known in that sequence up to 29226.
|Tanack 35 no.29185, no slow speeds, Tanar 50mm f/3.5 rigid lens no.29289. Pictures copyright Jiri Ecer. (Image rights)|
The next batch certainly started at 54000 or 54001, during year 1954. It is distinguished by a newer frame around the viewfinder window, with a more rectangular shape, as adopted on the Leica in 1937. It is also said that the collar around the release button was modified to receive a cable release, and that an anti-rebound device was added to the shutter, but it is not known if these modifications were simultaneous.
The last camera known in the 54xxx range has no.54572 and no slow speeds. It has a small window in the advance knob, for an ASA sensitivity reminder. This device is absent from the later Tanack IIIS, and was perhaps experimental only.
The total production of the original Tanack 35 (with and without slow speeds) can be estimated at about 2,800 units (about 2,200 in the first batch, and about 600 in the second batch). Comparatively few are known to survive, perhaps because the build quality of these early cameras was relatively bad, and they broke down faster than the later models.
Transitional models: Tanack IIIS and IIISa Edit
The Tanack IIIS and IIISa introduced a new integral top cover, combining the top plate and viewfinder cover in a single part. It does not come down towards the lens mount, unlike the top cover of the Leica IIIc and various Leica copies, and its design is unique to the Tanack. There is a small hump under the rewind knob, as on the Leica IIIc, but there is no dioptre correction lever and this hump has no particular purpose. The frame around the viewfinder window is thin, as on the IIIc.
|Dual synchronization circuit of the Tanack IIIS and IV-S, from Shashin Kōgyō November 1955. (Image rights)|
The model name TYPE–IIIS or TYPE–IIISa is engraved above the viewfinder, between the brand name Tanack and the company name. The milling of the advance and rewind knobs is made of vertical and horizontal lines, instead of the diamond pattern of the earlier models.
The range of speeds has been modified, with B, 25–1, 50, 75, 100, 200, 500 positions on the main dial, and T, B, 1, 2, 4, 8, 25 positions on the slow speed dial. The absence of 1/15 speed, natural on the previous model with 1/20 setting, became conspicuous on the IIIS; the company justified this choice for the same economy reasons which prevailed for the absence of 1/1000 speed. The IIIS has two PC synch sockets, for FP or X synchronization (FP at the top, X at the bottom), whereas the IIISa has a single socket, as on the previous models.
Documents and actual examples Edit
The Tanack IIIS was only briefly advertised in Japanese magazines dated November and December 1954. The December advertisement in Ars Camera lists the camera as the "Tanack 35 IIIS", available at ¥31,700 with the Tanar 50mm f/2.8, and at ¥29,100 with the rigid Tanar 50mm f/3.5. It states that the camera comes with a guarantee (責任保証付), perhaps because of reliability problems with the earlier model. The pictured camera has a body number in the 67xxx range.
Actual cameras are known with a serial number in the 68xxx range, from 68075 to 68467; the production of the IIIS was maybe less than one thousand units.
The Tanack IIISa does not appear in the original documents, and a single surviving example is known so far. It may have been assembled from an unfinished Tanack 35 main body, without modifying it for dual synchronization.
Tanack IV-S Edit
The Tanack IV-S is by far the most common version. The main differences to the IIIS are the model name engraved at the top, the addition of strap lugs, of a film plane indicator to the rear of the company name, and of two black lines circling the body, under the top cover and above the bottom plate. The camera also differs by the red filling of the 25–1 position on the main speed dial, and by the addition of an X indication next to it.
|Tanack IV-S, early version. From Shashin Kōgyō September 1956. (Image rights)|
Early documents Edit
|Column on the Tanack IV-S in Shashin Kōgyō July 1955. (Image rights)|
The Tanack IV-S was advertised in Japanese magazines from January 1955 onwards. The May advertisement in Ars Camera shows a camera with Tanar 5cm f/2 lens, and gives no price and no detail. The camera was not announced in the magazines until Summer, perhaps because it introduced little practical change from the Tanack 35. The July issue of Shashin Kōgyō, reproduced on the right, lists the camera with f/2, f/2.8 or f/3.5 lenses, mentions 1/1000 top speed by mistake, and says that the camera can take pictures until 1.5ft, indicating that all the lenses were focusing to that distance (see Tanar lenses), which probably justified the addition of the film plane indicator. The camera is priced at ¥38,500 with f/2 lens, and the other prices are unchanged: ¥31,700 with f/2.8 and ¥29,100 with f/3.5.
The camera with f/2 lens appears again as a new product in the September issue of the same magazine, reproduced below, and the November issue contains a detailed article by Saitō Tomosaburō of the Tanaka company.
|Column on the Tanack IV-S in Shashin Kōgyō September 1955. (Image rights)|
The October 1955 special issue of Photo Art, reproduced in the bibliography section, mentions a fourth lens option, with a Hexar 50mm f/3.5, at ¥31,600, and says that the camera was available from Spring.
Early variations Edit
| Tanack IV-S no.68575, from the first set of pictures sent to the press and used in the user manual.|
From Shashin Kōgyō November 1955. (Image rights)
Pictures of body no.68575 were used in the first announce to the press, in the user manual, and in various advertisements for the camera. This is the earliest serial number confirmed so far, continuing the sequence started with the IIIS. That particular example has the model name inscribed as TYPE–IVS, instead of TYPE IV–S on all the other cameras.
|Tanack IV-S no.68575, from the advertisement in Shashin Kōgyō February 1957. (Image rights)|
On this camera and on other very early examples, the X indication on the main speed dial corresponds to a separate setting, described as 1/30 in the user manual. This X setting was later merged into the main 25–1 setting, simply by pointing to the same location on the dial rim — it was usually not paint-filled, perhaps because it was now unimportant. This change occurred very soon, and body no.69732 is confirmed to have the new configuration.
At some early time, a dot was added on the top cover next to the speed dial; it was used as a secondary index, allowing to set the speed before winding the shutter. This change occurred soon after the change in the X setting, or perhaps simultaneously; body no.70184 is confirmed to have the new feature, which was already mentioned in the November 1955 article by Saitō. A shock absorber and noise buffer for the shutter were under development at the time of the article, but it is not known if they were adopted on the later production or not.
Later documents Edit
Generic mentions and comparative tests in the September and October 1956 issues of Shashin Kōgyō give unchanged prices for the camera with Tanar f/2, f/2.8 or f/3.5 lenses. The full maker's name, as mentioned in these documents, is now Tanaka Kōgaku Kōgyō, but the English name engraved on the top cover remained unchanged. The camera tested in the October issue, certainly a recent production sample, seems to have body no.72229.
|Tanack IV-S no.72229, tested in Shashin Kōgyō October 1956. (Image rights)|
Advertisements were published by Tanack Camera, commercial branch of Tanaka Kōgaku Kōgyō, in the November 1956 and January to May 1957 issues of the same magazine, and similar advertisements were published in Asahi Camera. The prices are unchanged all along; 35mm and 135mm Tanar lenses are listed, and the ever-ready case is sometimes offered separately for ¥2,210. The pictures sometimes show body no.68575 (the earliest presentation camera); those dated May 1957 are the first to show a camera with the film reminder (see below) and a black and chrome Tanar 5cm f/2 lens.
|November 1956||January 1957||February 1957|
|March 1957||April 1957||May 1957|
| Advertisements for the Tanack IV-S in Shashin Kōgyō.|
(Contemporary advertisements in Asahi Camera are almost identical.) (Image rights)
After the introduction of the Tanack SD, the two cameras were advertised side by side in Asahi Camera until June 1958. The new model initially had the most prominent place, but the IV-S regained that place towards Spring 1958.
|June and July 1957||July–August 1957||August 1957||September 1957|
|October 1957||November 1957||December 1957||January 1958|
|February 1958||March 1958||April and June 1958|
|Advertisements for the Tanack SD and IV-S in Asahi Camera. (Image rights)|
The f/3.5 lens option was maintained at least until mid 1958, but its sales were certainly low, and it seems that the lens was never supplied in black finish (see Tanar lenses). It was apparently withdrawn at some later time, perhaps in late 1958. Advertisements for the Tanack IV-S appear in various Japanese magazines until December 1958, and the camera was only replaced by the Tanack V3 in January 1959.
Late version and total production Edit
The main change that occurred during the production of the IV-S was the addition of a film reminder on top of the advance knob. It has PANCHRO (from ASA 50 to 400), COLOR (from ASA 10 to 32) and EMPTY positions. It was introduced between body no.74802 and 74860. The cameras made after that date normally have the black and chrome Tanar 5cm f/2 or 5cm f/2.8 standard lens. One isolated example is known with a thread for a cable release inside the release button itself, perhaps an experimental fitting or a posterior modification.
|Tanack IV-S no.77020, late version, with the Tanar H.C. 5cm f/2 no.26636. Pictures copyright Jiri Ecer. (Image rights)|
Serial numbers are known for the IV-S up to 78390, in a seemingly continuous sequence. The total production of this model can be estimated at about 11,000 units, for a total of about 14,000 Tanack cameras, excluding the later Tanack SD, V3 and VP.
- the viewfinder — Tanaka was developing a bright frame finder with 1.0× magnification, as on the Nikon S2 and Leica M3;
- the film flatness — the company undertook research in that direction, to allow the use of wide-aperture lenses;
- the shutter and synchronization, where improvements were expected but for which no specific detail is given.
Other minor points were the wind and rewind speed, and the integration of the self-timer and exposure meter.
All these points, except for the exposure meter, appeared on the Tanack SD, a completely different body released in 1957 with an f/1.5 lens, priced somewhat higher than the other Tanack. That camera was perhaps too complex to manufacture and was a commercial failure; it never displaced the IV-S as the company's main product.
The actual successor of the IV-S was the Tanack V3, re-using the main body of the IV-S, and priced about the same with an f/1.9 lens. It evolved as the Tanack VP just before the final demise of Tanaka Kōgaku.
A number of fake Tanack cameras have appeared in today's collectors market. These are made from Fed or Zorki bottom-loading cameras, and are very easy to detect from the absence of a hinged back. (The presence of an integral top cover is not a good criterion because genuine early Tanack have a separate top cover for the viewfinder.)
- ↑ Saitō, pp.348–9 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955: タナックIVSに於いては前述の如く抱くまでも大衆価格を堅持する建前よりそれほどの必要を認めない1/1000秒を省き.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Saitō, p.349 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955.
- ↑ Saitō, p.350 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955.
- ↑ Saitō, p.348 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955: 唯タナックIVSはこのため現在ではマガジンを使用し得ない不便がありますが、小型ボディを標榜しているため一応マガジン使用を断念しました.
- ↑ Saitō, p.348 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955: 又工作に於いてもボディのフランジフォーカス測定、シャッター検査或はファインダーの視野検査などに大きな利点があります.
- ↑ Shirai, pp.25–6 of Maboroshi no kamera o otte: 熊谷氏の会社の職人だった人々が作ったカメラに、やはりライカそっくりの「タナック」、「チヨタックス」、「メルコン」があるという.
- ↑ Tanaka is a very common family name in Japan.
- ↑ Saitō, pp.348–51 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955 (on the Tanack IV-S) and pp.248–9 of Shashin Kōgyō March 1959 (see Tanack V3 and VP). This magazine frequently contained articles written by top designers of their respective companies.
- ↑ Saitō, p.348 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955, says that the development started "three years ago": この夢の実現に過去三年間全力を傾注し.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.354.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.354.
- ↑ Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.145.
- ↑ Column in the November 1953 special issue of Photo Art (no.58), p.86.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.354, omits to list these advertisements in Asahi Camera, though that dated March 1954 is reproduced on p.145.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Advertisement in Asahi Camera March 1954 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.145, advertisements in Asahi Camera January 1955, p.56, and February 1955, p.52, and advertisement reproduced in this page at Shashin-Bako.
- ↑ Advertisement in Asahi Camera February 1955, p.52, and advertisement reproduced in this page at Shashin-Bako.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 Awano, pp.52–3 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.37.
- ↑ Advertisement in Asahi Camera March 1954 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.145, and advertisement in Asahi Camera February 1955, p.52. See also the similar advertisement reproduced in this page at Shashin-Bako.
- ↑ Column in the October 1955 special issue of Photo Art (no.87), p.78, reproduced in the bibliography section.
- ↑ Advertisement in Ars Camera May 1953 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.145.
- ↑ Advertisement in Asahi Camera March 1954 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.145, advertisements in Asahi Camera January 1955, p.56, and February 1955, p.52, and advertisement reproduced in this page at Shashin-Bako.
- ↑ Example pictured in this page at World Leica Copies.
- ↑ Body no.29226, sold as lot no.389 of Westlicht auction no.15.
- ↑ Awano, p.53 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.37. The anti-rebound device is also mentioned in Saitō, p.349 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955.
- ↑ Example pictured in Pont / Princelle, p.247.
- ↑ Comments on the unsatisfying build quality are notably found in Awano, p.52 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.37. This is confirmed by the condition of most cameras observed so far.
- ↑ Saitō, pp.348–9 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955.
- ↑ 28.0 28.1 User manual reproduced in this page by Patrick Badaire and in this page by Stephen @ Lee.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.354. Awano, p.53 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.37, says that the IIIS was released in August 1954 but this is unconfirmed.
- ↑ Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.146.
- ↑ Example no.68075 pictured in Awano, p.53 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.37, in Sugiyama, item 3765, and in HPR, pp.296–7 (the serial number is reported in the latter). Example no.68467 observed in an online auction.
- ↑ Example pictured in Awano, p.53 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.37, and in Sugiyama, item 3766.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.354.
- ↑ Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.145.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.354.
- ↑ Column in Shashin Kōgyō July 1955, p.39.
- ↑ Column in Shashin Kōgyō September 1955, pp.183–4.
- ↑ Saitō, pp.348–51 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955.
- ↑ Column in the October 1955 special issue of Photo Art (no.87), p.78.
- ↑ Pictures of this camera appear in Shashin Kōgyō July 1955 (p.39), September 1955 (p.183), November 1955 (pp.348 and 350), February 1957 (advertisement on p.86), March 1957 (advertisement on p.166) and April 1957 (advertisement on p.250), in the October 1955 special issue of Photo Art (no.87), p.78, and in the camera's user manual reproduced in this page by Patrick Badaire and in this page by Stephen @ Lee.
- ↑ Example pictured among Leica copies at Cameras Downunder (body no.69415), and example observed in an online auction (body number is perhaps 69594).
- ↑ Example sold as lot no.356 of Westlicht auction no.7.
- ↑ Example observed for sale by a dealer.
- ↑ Saitō, p.349 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955: フィルム捲上げ前のシャッターセットは所定の指標にシャッター目盛を合わせることによって簡単に行われます.
- ↑ Saitō, p.349 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955: 現在は更に膜の緩衝及び防音装置を研究中であり近々、今一段の飛躍をなし得るものと信じております.
- ↑ Column in Shashin Kōgyō September 1956, p.217, and article in Shashin Kōgyō October 1956, pp.265–9.
- ↑ Advertisements in Shashin Kōgyō November 1956, p.325, January 1957, p.6, February 1957, p.86, March 1957, p.164, April 1957, p.250, and May 1957, p.334.
- ↑ Advertisements in Asahi Camera January 1957, p.208, February 1957, p.74, March 1957, p.190, April 1957, p.185, and May 1957, p.165. See also the advertisement in Asahi Camera December 1956 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.146.
- ↑ Advertisements in Asahi Camera June 1957, p.114, July 1957, p.124, July–August 1957, p.172, August 1957, p.110, September 1957, p.106, October 1957, p.195, November 1957, p.113, December 1957, p.176, January 1958, p.116, February 1958, p.193, March 1958, p.202, April 1958, p.224, June 1958, p.206.
- ↑ The advertisement reproduced in Hagiya, p.184 of Sekai no Raika renzu, list the f/2 and f/2.8 options only.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.354.
- ↑ Example no.74802 pictured in Pont / Princelle, p.249. Example no.74860 observed for sale by a dealer. The film reminder is also anomalously present on body no.70184, observed for sale by a dealer, perhaps because it was converted afterwards.
- ↑ Example pictured in this page of the Leitz collection and optical museum, with a serial number in the 77xxx range.
- ↑ Example no.78390 sold as lot no.337 of Westlicht auction no.12.
- ↑ All thousands from 68xxx to 78xxx have been observed.
- ↑ Saitō, p.351 of Shashin Kōgyō November 1955.
Original documents Edit
|January 1957||February 1957||March 1957||April 1957||May 1957|
- Asahi Camera. Advertisements by Tanaka Kōgaku:
- January 1955, p.56;
- February 1955, p.52.
- Asahi Camera. Advertisements by Tanack Camera:
- January 1957, p.208;
- February 1957, p.74;
- March 1957, p.190;
- April 1957, p.185;
- May 1957, p.165;
- June 1957, p.114;
- July 1957, p.124;
- July–August 1957, p.172;
- August 1957, p.110;
- September 1957, p.106;
- October 1957, p.195;
- November 1957, p.113;
- December 1957, p.176;
- January 1958, p.116;
- February 1958, p.193;
- March 1958, p.202;
- April 1958, p.224;
- June 1958, p.206.
- Nakafuji Atsushi (中藤敦). "Kokusan kamera shiyō-ki: Tanakku IVS" (国産カメラ使用記・タナックIVS, Using Japanese cameras: the Tanack IV-S). In Asahi Camera April 1957. Pp.77 and 203.
|Column on the Tanack 35 in the October 1955 special issue of Photo Art. (Image rights)|
- Photo Art rinji zōkan: Zoku kamera no chishiki (フォトアート臨時増刊・続・カメラの知識, Photo Art special issue: Knowledge of cameras, continued). November 1953, no.58 of the magazine. "Kamera gyararī: Naigai kamera 200-shu tenbō" (カメラギャラリー・内外カメラ200種展望, Camera gallery: panorama of 200 Japanese and foreign cameras). P.86.
- Photo Art rinji zōkan: Kamera no chishiki (フォトアート臨時増刊・カメラの知識, Photo Art special issue: Knowledge of cameras). October 1955, no.87 of the magazine. "Kokusan kamera no saiten 1. 35-miri kamera" (国産カメラの祭典・1・35ミリカメラ, Japanese camera festival 1, 35mm cameras). P.78.
- Saitō Tomosaburō (齋藤友三郎), of the Tanaka Kōgaku company. "Tanakku IVS-gata no kaisetsu" (タナックIVS型の解説, Comments on the Tanack IV-S). In Shashin Kōgyō no.41, November 1955. Pp.348–51.
- Shashin Kōgyō. Advertisements by Tanaka Kōgaku:
- no.54, November 1956, p.325;
- no.56, January 1957, p.6;
- no.57, February 1957, p.86;
- no.58, March 1957, p.164;
- no.59, April 1957, p.250;
- no.60, May 1957, p.334.
|Column on the Tanack IV-S in Shashin Kōgyō Summer 1957. (Image rights)|
- Shashin Kōgyō no.37, July 1955. "Kokusan 35-miri kamera sōran" (国産35ミリカメラ総らん, Panorama of Japanese 35mm cameras). P.39.
- Shashin Kōgyō no.39, September 1955. "Nyūsu furashu" (ニュースフラシュ, News flash). Pp.183–4.
- Shashin Kōgyō no.52, September 1956. "Kokusan kamera memo" (国産カメラメモ, Memo of Japanese cameras). P.217.
- Shashin Kōgyō no.53, October 1956. "Renzu kōkan-gata kamera go-shu o kentō suru" (レンズ交換型カメラ五種を検討する, Inspecting five cameras with interchangeable lens). Pp.265–9.
- Shashin Kōgyō no.63, Summer 1957. "Nihon no kamera zenbō: 35-miri kamera" (日本のカメラ全貌・35ミリカメラ, Compendium of Japanese cameras: 35mm cameras). P.107.
- Tanaka Optical Co., Ltd. Tanack Type IVS with "Tanar" lens, Direction for using. User manual of the Tanack IV-S. Reproduced in this page by Patrick Badaire and in this page by Stephen @ Lee.
Recent sources Edit
- Asahi Camera (アサヒカメラ) editorial staff. Shōwa 10–40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10–40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935–1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Items 585–8. (See also the advertisement for item 1337.)
- Awano Mikio (粟野幹男). "Kokusan Barunakku-gata kamera: Tanakku" (国産バルナック型カメラ・タナック, Japanese Leica-type cameras: Tanack). In Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.37, March 1996. No ISBN number. Leica Book '96 (ライカブック'96). Pp.52–5.
- Christies auction catalogues:
- Leica, Nikon and Canon Cameras and Leica copies, June 9, 1994, lot no.27.
- Leica, Nikon and Canon, Leica copies and 35mm cameras, June 8, 1995, lots no.44 and 45.
- Hagiya Takeshi (萩谷剛). "Raika to sekai no Raika-yō renzu" (ライカと世界のライカ用レンズ, Leica and other Leica-mount lenses). In Sekai no Raika renzu (世界のライカレンズ, Leica lenses of the world) Part 1. Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2003. ISBN 4-87956-061-8. Pp.178–88. (Shows a late advertisement for the Tanack IV-S, wrongly dated 1955.)
- HPR. Leica Copies. London: Classic Collection Publications, 1994. ISBN 1-874485-05-4. Pp.291–8.
- Kawamura Yukimasa (川村幸正). "Tanakku IV-S" (タナックIV-S, Tanack IV-S). In Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.45, March 1998. ISBN 4-257-13014-8. Sekai no Raika-gata kamera (世界のライカ型カメラ, Leica-like cameras of the world). Pp.22–3.
- Lewis, Gordon, ed. The History of the Japanese Camera. Rochester, N.Y.: George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography & Film, 1991. ISBN 0-935398-17-1 (paper), ISBN 0-935398-16-3 (hard). Pp.84 and 88.
- McKeown, James M. and Joan C. McKeown's Price Guide to Antique and Classic Cameras, 12th Edition, 2005-2006. USA, Centennial Photo Service, 2004. ISBN 0-931838-40-1 (hardcover). ISBN 0-931838-41-X (softcover). Pp.913–4.
- Pont, P.-H., and Princelle, J.-L. 300 Leica Copies. Neuilly: Fotosaga, 1990. ISBN 2-906840-03-3. Pp.246–9.
- Shirai Tatsuo (白井達男). "Nippon Kamera" (ニッポンカメラ, Nippon Camera). Pp.17–26 of Maboroshi no kamera o otte (幻のカメラを追って, Pursuing phantom cameras). Gendai Kamera Shinsho (現代カメラ新書). Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 1982. ISBN 4-257-08077-9. (First published in Kamera Rebyū / Camera Review no.2, February 1978.) Contains an interview of Kumagai Genji, mentioning the Tanack as made by a former employee.
- Sugiyama, Kōichi (杉山浩一); Naoi, Hiroaki (直井浩明); Bullock, John R. The Collector's Guide to Japanese Cameras. 国産カメラ図鑑 (Kokusan kamera zukan). Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 1985. ISBN 4-257-03187-5. Items 3763–7.
- Tanack 35 (no slow speeds), Tanack 35 (slow speeds), Tanack IIIS, Tanack IV-S and Tanack family at Ian Norris' Prime Lens
- Tanack IV-S in the Leitz collection and optical museum
- Tanack IV-S among copies of the Leica III at Massimo Bertacchi's Innovative Cameras
- Tanack IV-S in Rick Soloway's Flickr gallery
- Tanack IV-S (very early) among Leica copies at Cameras Downunder
- Tanack 35 posts at Saiensu na hanashi
- Tanack IIIF at World Leica Copies
- Tanack IV-S and Tanar 5cm f/2.8 at Koujiya's blog
- Tanack IV-S at Clacamera
- Tanack IV-S at Nagoya's Camera Club
User manuals and documents Edit
- User manual of the Tanack IV-S in pdf format in Patrick Badaire's Photo Minolta
- User manual of the Tanack IV-S in Stephen @ Lee's Flickr gallery
- Advertisement for the Tanack 35, published in 1954, reproduced in a page of Japanese postwar advertisements at the Shashin-Bako website
Past auction sales Edit
- Past sales by Westlicht:
- Tanack 35C, early type, with Tanar 50mm f/2.8: lot no.389 of auction no.15 (May 23, 2009)
- Tanack IIIS with Tanar 50mm f/3.5: lot no.425 of auction no.14 (November 30, 2008)
- Tanack IV-S, body only: lot no.406 of auction no.9 (May 20, 2006)
- Tanack IV-S with Tanar 50mm f/2.8: lot no.236 of auction no.5 (May 29, 2004)
- Tanack IV-S with Tanar 50mm f/2.8: lot no.356 of auction no.7 (May 21, 2005)
- Tanack IV-S with Tanar 5cm f/2: lot no.259 of auction no.10 (November 18, 2006)
- Tanack IV-S with Tanar 5cm f/2: lot no.337 of auction no.12 (November 17, 2007)
- Past sales by Christies:
- Past sales by Auction Team Breker:
- Past sales by LP Foto:
- Tanack IV-S with Tanar 5cm f/2: lot no.250 of the August 23, 2008 auction by Skinner
- Tanack IV-S with Tanar 5cm f/2: lot no.5 of the May 6, 2006 auction by Tamarkin