Eastman Kodak Co., of Rochester, New York, is an American film maker and camera maker. For at least three quarters of the 20th century it played the dominant role in worldwide photography business.
In 1879 George Eastman, amateur photographer and employee of a bank in Rochester, had invented an emulsion-coating machine for mass production of dry plates and got a patent on it in England. In 1881 he and Rochester's local buggy whip \ the address 343 State Street, longtime headquarters address of the company. In 1884 Eastman and Strong transformed their partnership to a corporation for ]photography. The first step towards that goal was the "Kojak" camera he introduced in 1888 which had a built-in 100-exposure paper roll film costing $25, a huge amount. The box camera had to be sent back to the factory once all the exposures had been used. The customers got their cameras back with new film roll loaded into it, and the image prints. In 1890 a Kodak folding camera with built-in 48 exposure film roll followed. After years of advertising the brand Kodak the company was renamed Eastman Kodak Co. In 1900 Eastman had reached his goal, offering the Brownie rollfilm camera which cost only $1 including a 6 exposure film. Further film rolls cost just 15 cents. The Brownie camera series was continued until 1970.
Through the early twentieth century, Kodak produced an increasingly large range of cameras, in an increasing range of film formats - becoming the dominant supplier of both cameras and film.
Kodak used to have autonomous branches in other countries, which developed their own lines of products, as Ford did for cars. The German branch Kodak AG, which made the famous Retina models, is discussed in a separate page, as is Kodak Ltd. (UK). At its peak Kodak's international plants were
- in Canada: Kodak Canada Limited, Toronto
- in UK: Kodak Limited, several plants
- in France: Kodak Pathé, several plants
- in Germany: Kodak AG, Stuttgart (formerly Nagel)
- in Australia: Kodak Australasia Pty. Ltd., Coburg
- in Argentina: Kodak Argentina S.A.I.C., Buenos Aires
- in Brazil: Kodak Brasileira Comércio e Indústria Ltda., Sao Paolo
- in India: Kodak Limited
- in Spain: Kodak S.A., Madrid
- in Mexico: Kodak Industrial, S.A. de C.V.
With exception of the Mexican plant all these international branches made cameras. Most U.S. plants outside Rochester specialized in producing basic materials like gelatine (Peabody/Massachusetts), plastics (Longview/Texas), chemicals (Batesville/Arkansas), polyester fibre (Columbia/S.C.), and basic materials for film making and others (Kingsport/Tennessee). Some of the films and plates were made in Windsor/Colorado. At its peak, the company was huge and made everything connected with photography: cameras, lenses (including some of the best lenses of the mid-20th century, see Kodak lenses), film, and processing chemicals and equipment, in addition to photographic materials used in the graphic arts industry (for example, for printing). It also conducted important photographic research and development. 60,000 people were working for Kodak in Rochester. In 1966 the company had 100,000 employees worldwide.
The most popular Kodak cameras were the ones for 126 film cartridges. The first of these cameras was launched in 1963. By 1976, 60 million Instamatic cameras had been sold, six times more than all competitors put together had sold of this camera type, and also six times more than Kodak's previous big success, the Brownie Star camera series (10 million Starflex, Starmite, and Starflash sold, made from 1957 to 1962). Another huge success was achieved with Kodak's type 110 pocket film cartridges and pocket cameras which were introduced in 1972. But this time other companies took a larger share of the market by abandoning their own miniature film formats and introducing smart pocket cameras for 110 film instead. Kodak's decline began when it flopped with another miniature film format, the disc film, in the 1980s.
In the late 1970s, Kodak developed Instant cameras and a new Instant Picture system, in competition with Polaroid. This led to lawsuits, resulting in a loss for Kodak. Damages of over $900 million were awarded to Polaroid.
In the year 1976 camera engineer Steven Sasson developed Kodak's first digital still camera (for 0.1 megapixel black&white exposures), based on newest CCD technology. Kodak didn't realize the huge value of this invention and delayed the production of digital consumer cameras until it was too late to enter the digital market with the huge success that Kodak was used to having. In August 2006 it abandoned the production of digital cameras by outsourcing the production to Flextronics, an all-and-everything OEM manufacturer in Singapore.
Becoming the only super power in a market of popular and professional products was not just based on product quality. Advertising the big brand was always a not underestimatable factor of Kodak's success.
1898: variety of camera models including Kodak's avantgarde Folding Pocket Kodak.
1905: Hunt with a Kodak.
1909: Kodaks for Christmas.
1911: advertising cameras for a class society: Brownies for the common people, Kodaks for the better off.
1916: Kodaks for the American Boy Scout.
1937: no photo w/o appropriate film.
1938: The Bantam family.
1944: Superior lenses.
1947: Kodak goes Reflex.
1958: Kodacolor 135 rules the World.
35mm film Edit
Roll film Edit
101 film Edit
103 film Edit
105 film Edit
116 film Edit
- No. 1A Speed Kodak
- No. 1A Pocket Kodak
- No. 1A Autographic Kodak Jr.
- Kodak No. 2A Folding Autographic Brownie
- Kodak No. 2A Folding Pocket Brownie
- Cartridge Hawk-Eye 2A
- No. 2A Beau Brownie
- No. 2A Brownie camera
- No. 2A Brownie Special
- Kodak No. 2A Cartridge Premo Model B
Kodak No. 2A Folding Cartridge Hawk-Eye Model B
118 film Edit
120 film Edit
- Kodak Brownie boy scout
- Kodak Beau Brownie No.2
- No.2 Brownie camera
- Portrait Brownie No.2
- No.2 Brownie Junior uk model
- No.2 Brownie Special
- No.2 Brownie Special Century of Progress-World s fair souvenir
120 film, folder Edit
- No.1 Autographic Kodak Junior
- Kodak No. 120
- Kodak No. 2 Folding Autographic Brownie
- Kodak No. 2 Hawkette
- Pocket Kodak No. 1
- Pocket Kodak No. 1a
- Pocket Kodak No. 3a
- Pocket Kodak Junior No. 1
- Pocket Kodak Junior No. 1a
- Pocket Kodak No. 1 series II with autographic 120 film
- Pocket Kodak No. 1a series II
- Pocket Kodak Special No. 1
- Pocket Kodak Special No. 1a
- Pocket Kodak Special No. 2c
- Pocket Kodak Special No. 3
120 film, box Edit
- No. 3A Folding Pocket Kodak
- No. 3A Autographic Kodak Junior
- No. 3A Autographic Kodak
- No. 3A Autographic Kodak Special (1916: Kodak's first rangefinder camera)
- No.3A Panoram
123 film Edit
124 film Edit
127 film Edit
- Kodak Baby Brownie
- Kodak Baby Brownie Special
- Kodak Boy Scout
- Kodak Brownie 127
- Kodak Brownie Fiesta
- Kodak Brownie Holiday (Kodak Brownie Bullet)
- Brownie Reflex
- Kodak Brownie Starflash
- Kodak Brownie Starflex
- Brownie Starlet
- Kodak Brownie Starluxe
- Kodak Brownie Starmite & Starmite II
- Kodak Brownie Super 27
- Kodak Bullet
- Vest Pocket Kodak
- Vest Pocket Autographic
- Vollenda 48, see Kodak AG
- No. 2C Autographic Kodak Junior
- No. 2C Autographic Kodak Special w/coupled rangefinder
- No. 2C Brownie
- No. 2C Folding Autographic Brownie
- No. 2C Pocket Kodak
- No. 2C Autographic Kodak Series III
- Kodak Cartridge Premo No. 2C
- Kodak Folding Cartridge Premo No. 2C
- No. 2C Pocket Kodak Special
- Six-16 Kodak
- Junior Six-16
- Brownie Junior
- Target Brownie Six-16
- Brownie Target Six-16
- Brownie Special six-16
620 film Edit
828 Bantam film Edit
Plate and sheet film Edit
Premo film pack cameras Edit
Eastman Kodak NO.4C plate Folding plate cameras Edit
postcard format Edit
- 3A Film Plate Special Premo (3¼×5½)
large format Edit
- Kodak Master View Camera 4x5
- Kodak Master View Camera 8x10
- Eastman View Camera No. 2-D (5x7)
- Eastman View Camera No. 2-D (8x10)
Cartridge film Edit
126 film Edit
See the Instamatic Page.
110 film Edit
See also Instamatic 110 list.
- Fisher-Price 100 Camera
- Kodak Brownie II
- Kodak Cross
- Kodak Ektra 1
- Kodak Ektra 12
- Kodak Ektra 12EF
- Kodak Ektra 20
- Kodak Ektra 22
- Kodak Ektra 52
- Kodak Ektra 90
- Kodak Ektra 100
- Kodak Ektra 200
- Kodak Ektra 22-EF
- Kodak Ektralite 10
- Kodak Ektralite 500
- Kodak Tele Ektralite 600
- Kodak Gimini
- Kodak Graffiti
- Kodak Outdoor 110
- Kodak Pazzazz
- Pocket Instamatic 10
- Pocket Instamatic 40
- Pocket Instamatic 60
- Kodak Sport
- Kodak Stylelite pocket
- Kodak Tele-Ektra 1
- Kodak Tele-Ektra 2
- Kodak Tele-Ektra 32
- Kodak Tele-Ektra 300
- Kodak Tele-Ektra 350
- Kodak Tele-Ektralite 20
- Kodak Winner Pocket Camera
- Mickey-Matic Camera
- Pocket Instamatic 20
- Pocket Instamatic 30
- Pocket Instamatic 50
- Star 110 Camera
See the Advantix page
Special film Edit
Kodak disc film Edit
- Kodak disc 3000
- Kodak disc 3100
- Kodak disc 3500
- Kodak disc 3600
- Kodak disc 4000
- Kodak disc 4100
- Kodak disc 6100
- Kodak Tele Disc
Instant film Edit
- Kodak Colorburst 200
- Kodak Colorburst 250
- Kodak Colorburst 300
- Kodak Colorburst 350
- Kodak EK2
- Kodak EK4
- Kodak EK6
- Kodak EK8
- Kodak Fiesta
- Kodak - The Handle
- Kodak Handle 2
- Kodak Happy Times (Coca-Cola) Camera
- Kodak Kodamatic 930
- Kodak Kodamatic 940
- Kodak Kodamatic 950
- Kodak Kodamatic 960
- Kodak Kodamatic 970L
- Kodak Kodamatic 980L
- Kodak Party Time
- Kodak Party Time II
- Kodak Partyflash II
- Kodak Pleaser
- Kodak Pleaser II
- Kodak Trimprint 920
- Kodak Trimprint 940
16mm film Edit
- Eastman M.B., spy matchbox camera
just display, no optical finder Edit
- Kodak Easyshare C433, C875
- Kodak Easyshare LS755
- Kodak Easyshare One 4MP, 6MP
- Kodak Easyshare V530, V570, V603, V610, V705
- Kodak EasyShare Z885
display and optical finder Edit
- Kodak DC20, DC25, DC40, DC50 Zoom, DC120 Zoom, DC200, DC200 Plus, DC210, DC210 Plus, DC215, DC220, DC220 Pro Edition, DC240, DC260, DC260 Pro Edition, DC265, DC290, DC3200, DC3400, DC3800, DC4800, DC5000
- Kodak Easyshare DX3215, DX3500, DX3600, DX3700, DX3900, DX4330, DX4530, DX4900, DX6340, DX6440, DX7440, DX7630
- Kodak Easyshare CX4200, CX4210, CX4230, CX4300, CX4310, CX6200, CX6230, CX6330, CX6445, CX7220, CX7300, CX7310, CX7330, CX7430, CX7525, CX7530
- Kodak Easyshare CW330
- Kodak Easyshare CD33, CD40, CD43
- Kodak Easyshare C300, C310, C315, C330, C340, C360, C503, C530, C533, C603, C643, C663, C703, C743
- Kodak Easyshare LS420, LS443, LS633, LS743, LS753
- Kodak Easyshare V550, V705
- Kodak Easyshare Z700, Z730, Z760
display and electronic finder Edit
- Kodak Easyshare DX6490, DX7590
- Kodak Easyshare P712, P850, P880
- Kodak Easyshare Z812 IS, Z612, Z650, Z710, Z740, Z7590
Nikon F mount Edit
- Kodak DCS 100 (back attached to a Nikon F3)
- Kodak DCS 200 (back attached to a Nikon F801s/N8008s)
- Kodak DCS 315 [back attached to Nikon Pronea 6i) (1.5MP)
- Kodak DCS 330 [back attached to Nikon Pronea 6i) (3MP)
- Kodak DCS 410 (back attached to a Nikon F90/N90)
- Kodak DCS 420 (back attached to a Nikon F90/N90 or F90X/N90s)
- Kodak DCS 460 (back attached to a Nikon F90X/N90s)
- Kodak NC2000 (back attached to a Nikon F90/N90 or F90X/N90s)
- Kodak NC2000e (back attached to a Nikon F90X/N90s)
- Kodak DCS 620 / DCS 620x (based on a Nikon F5)
- Kodak DCS 660 / DCS 660M (based on a Nikon F5)
- Kodak DCS 720x (based on a Nikon F5)
- Kodak DCS 760 (based on a Nikon F5)
- Kodak DCS Pro 14n
- Kodak DCS Pro SLR/n
Canon EF mount Edit
- Kodak EOS-DCS 1 (back attached to a Canon EOS-1N)
- Kodak EOS-DCS 3 (back attached to a Canon EOS-1N)
- Kodak EOS-DCS 5 (back attached to a Canon EOS-1N)
- Kodak DCS 520 (based on a Canon EOS-1N and also sold as Canon D2000)
- Kodak DCS 560 (based on a Canon EOS-1N)
- Kodak DCS Pro SLR/c
Nikon Pronea mount Edit
- Kodak DCS 315 (based on a Nikon Pronea 600i)
- Kodak DCS 330 (based on a Nikon Pronea 600i)
|photography related industry in Rochester (New York)|
|American Camera | Bausch & Lomb | Blair | Century | Crown Optical Co. | Elgeet | Folmer & Schwing | Gassner and Marx | Graflex | Gundlach | Ilex | JML | Kodak | Milburn | Monroe | PMC | Ray | Reichenbach, Morey and Will | Rochester Camera and Supply Co. | Rochester Optical Co. | Seneca | Sunart | Walker | Wollensak|
|and in Rochester (Minnesota)|
| graflex.org - Rudolf Kingslake's|
"Optical industry in Rochester (N.Y.)"
- KODAK Milestones, 1880-1980, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester NY, USA: 1980.
- Coe, Brian, Kodak Cameras: The First Hundred Years, p.60, Hove Foto Books, Hove, East Sussex, UK: 1988.
Websites in English:Edit
- History of Kodak on Kodak's website.
- Eastman Kodak Company Camera Listing at Historic Camera
- History of Kodak Cameras, a complete list with all the cameras made by Kodak, dates, film sizes and original prices, on Kodak's website. PDF available.
- Kodak Classics by Mischa Koning ~ A site with manuals, historical background information, articles and pictures on nearly 500 Classic Kodak cameras.
- The Kodak Collector's Page by Walker Mangum, with many information including an article about the Kodak roll film numbers by Thom Bell.
- Kodak manuals, booklets and other historical literature (some in PDF and some in HTML) at OrphanCameras.com.
- Kodak DCS series DSLRs at Photography in Malaysia.
- Flickr group "Kodak".
- The Remigijus box Brownie Camera Page by Remy Steller.
- Kodak Cameras Price Guide by CollectiBlend.
- Ed's Kodak Collection by Ed van Mil, a dutch Kodakcollector.
- Many Kodak Camera Manuals : Photo-Manuals.com by Ben Squire.
- A picture Gallery using a Kodak Brownie Box
- "Kodak Brownie Target Six-20" picture and additional information at "Antique_Camera_Guy's" Flickr Photostream