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General description Edit
All the Elmoflex have the same general configuration and body casting. The front plate is moved back and forth for focusing, and is driven by a knob on the photographer's right. The film advance automatically stops at each exposure. The advance knob is on the same side as the focus knob, and there is a round exposure counter window at the top of the side plate. The auto-stop mechanism is engaged by a sliding button between the two knobs, and is unlocked after each exposure by pressing the middle part of the advance knob.
The L-shaped back is hinged at the top, and there are two film flanges on the camera's left side. There are short black-painted strap attachments on each side, whose shape was unchanged until the Elmoflex V.
Early models Edit
Wartime introduction Edit
The Elmo company claims that the Elmoflex was introduced in 1938. However no original document has been found to confirm this early release date. The camera is notably not mentioned in the official list of set prices compiled in October 1940 and published in January 1941.
Conversely, the earliest document showing the camera is an advertisement in the Japanese magazine Shashin Bunka, dated October 1942. The motto is "Birth of an all new TLR" (二眼レフの最新鋭機誕生), and the document states that "the Elmoflex, awaited by the photographers, is coming" (写真人待望のエルモフレックス出来): these are strong indications that the camera was actually released that year. The advertisement was placed by the distributor Fukada Shōkai. It mentions an f/3.5 lens and slow speeds to 1s, and gives the price of ¥292.
The Elmoflex was intermittently advertised in the same magazine until September 1943. The February 1943 advertisement, again by Fukada, specifies that the camera has a K.O.L. Anastigmat 75/3.5 lens and an Elmo shutter (1–200, self-timer), at an unchanged price.
The government inquiry on Japanese camera production, compiled in April 1943, mentions the Elmoflex with a K.O.L. Elmo 75/3.5 three-element lens and an Orient A shutter by Tōyō Kōki Seizō (1–200, T, B, self-timer). The Elmo shutter was perhaps a rebadged version of the latter.
Immediate postwar period Edit
|Elmoflex, second nameplate design, NKS shutter, Lausar f/3.5 lens, in Photo Art December 1949. (Image rights)|
The production of the Elmoflex restarted immediately after the war, in 1946. It is said that the "Elmoflex I" was priced at ¥10,710 in September 1947. An article dated 1960 says that the next models were the "I-S and I-A", and at least one recent source reports various models released in the second half of the 1940s: the "Elmoflex Junior IA and IS" in 1948, and the "IA, IS, II and IIIB" in 1949. Other than the III-B described below, details of these models are unknown. They were perhaps produced for export only, and rarely appear in Japanese magazines of the period.
The camera is mentioned in an article by Kitano Kunio in the June 1949 issue of Kohga Gekkan. The author says that the quality is lower than on Elmo cine projectors, and that the company seems to have no coherent policy for the choice of a lens and shutter. He nonetheless concedes that the camera provides a good basis for future improvements, and that it could become a great product after some more development; the future would prove him right.
Actual examples Edit
Common features Edit
The Elmoflex III-B and all subsequent models received the Seikosha-Rapid shutter. Conversely, the examples found with lesser shutter specifications surely correspond to earlier models.
The viewing hood of the early cameras contains a magnifying lens hinged to the rear and a mirror behind the front part, which can be slanted at 45 degrees for eye-level focusing. The image projected through the eyepiece is reverted upside-down and left-right, and this viewing method is quite inconvenient.
Underneath the camera, the back latch is the same as on early Rolleicord models. There is a red window on its left, protected by a sliding cover, to set the position of the first exposure.
First nameplate Edit
The oldest cameras observed so far have the first nameplate design, inscribed ELMOFLEX in block letters and MADE IN NIPPON ELMO COMPANY underneath, with a winged ELMO logo in the middle. Two variants of this nameplate are known: one has the ELMOFLEX in heavy block letters, surrounded by the two attachment screws, the other has the same marking in thinner letters, with the two screws under "E" and "X".
These examples either have a K.O.L. Elmo Anastigmat 75mm f/3.5 or a Tomioka Lausar 7.5cm f/3.5 taking lens. Various sources, mostly based on Sugiyama's book, say that the "Elmoflex I", dated 1943, has K.O.L. lenses whereas the "Elmoflex Junior", dated 1947, has Lausar lenses. No original document has been found yet to confirm this. The exposure table attached to the camera's back is certainly a reliable distinguishing feature between wartime and postwar models: those examples with a table in Japanese language were certainly made during the war, and those with a table in English language were certainly assembled after 1945.
The K.O.L. taking lens is normally paired with an identical viewing lens. At least one camera, pictured in McKeown with K.O.L. lenses and heavy ELMOFLEX marking, has an unnamed shutter with 200–1, T, B speeds and a self-timer. The speed scale and aperture scale (to f/25) are directly inscribed on the black shutter plate, which has a winged ELMO marking at the bottom; the rotating rim is thin and has no name. This might correspond to the Orient A or "Elmo" shutter mentioned in the 1943 documents. Another similar camera is pictured in Neco's Collection, but lacks the shutter plate and speed rim.
Another example with K.O.L. lenses, pictured in Sugiyama as a wartime camera, has the thin ELMOFLEX marking and an NKS shutter (B, 1–200), with no self-timer. The outer rim is engraved NKS TOKYO, and the black front plate has the same winged ELMO marking and an aperture scale to f/16 on the side. A similar camera has been observed with an exposure table in English language at the rear.
Examples with a Lausar taking lens have a similar NKS shutter (with NKS TOKYO), and exist with either variant of the first nameplate design. At least one has an exposure table in English language, surely indicating postwar manufacture.
Second nameplate Edit
|Early Elmoflex, second nameplate design, NKS shutter, Tomioka Lausar 7.5cm f/3.5 taking lens no.2220xx, f/3 viewing lens. Pictures courtesy of eBayer 4dogsracing. (Image rights)|
|Early Elmoflex, second nameplate design, NKS shutter, Takatiho Zuiko 7.5cm f/3.5 lens. Picture courtesy of Pacific Rim Camera. (Image rights)|
More recent cameras have the second nameplate design, inscribed ELMOFLEX in block letters, with the screws under the "E" and "X" letters, and ELMO COMPANY below, surrounded by a pattern of bars and tildes. The above camera has a Lausar 7.5cm f/3.5 taking lens and an NKS shutter (marked NKS TOKYO); its viewing lens is a 7.5cm f/3, perhaps made by Tomioka too. It is extremely similar to the camera pictured in Photo Art December 1949 (see above). Another camera is known to have a pair of Lausar f/3.5 lenses.
Other cameras with the second nameplate have a Zuiko 7.5cm f/3.5 taking lens, inscribed Takatiho Tokyo on the rim. The viewing lens is an Elmo Elzer (or Elzar) Anastigmat 7.5cm f/2.9. The shutter is an NKS (B, 1–200), normally without the TOKYO marking, sometimes equipped with a self-timer. Some cameras from that period, such as that pictured on the right, have the front standard in plain metal instead of black finish. At about the same time, the small latch retaining the viewing hood on earlier cameras was replaced by a more robust sliding bar.
Elmoflex III Edit
Elmoflex III-B Edit
The first model of the next series is the Elmoflex III-B — there is no record of a plain "Elmoflex III". It was announced in the June 1950 issue of Ars Camera, where it was apparently mentioned as "for export only". This model is still very close to the earlier cameras. There is no release button on the front plate, and the shutter is cocked and tripped by a dual-function lever at the bottom.
The Elmoflex III-B pictured in Sugiyama has the second nameplate design. It has an Olympus Zuiko Coated 7.5cm f/3.5 taking lens, and its viewing lens is an Olympus Viewer 7.5cm f/3.5 — certainly a cheaper three-element design.
Elmoflex III-C Edit
|Elmoflex III-C in the 1951 camera annual by Nihon Camera. (Image rights)|
The Elmoflex III-C mainly differs by the addition of a body release at the bottom of the front standard, tripped by the photographer's left hand fingers and maybe surrounded by a shutter lock. It is said that the focusing mechanism was made smoother too. It has the third nameplate design: the Elmoflex name is written in fancy rounded letters, with ELMO COMPANY in thin block letters underneath, surrounded by three small stars on each side.
|Elmoflex III-C in Photo Art January 1951. (Image rights)|
The new model appears in the 1951 camera annual by Nihon Camera (dated October 1950), where it is pictured with an Olympus Zuiko Coated taking lens and no logo on the viewing hood. It is also briefly featured in the January 1951 issue of Photo Art. Both documents mention the price of ¥29,500.
Elmoflex III-D Edit
The Elmoflex III-D has an additional flash synch socket on the front standard, opposite the release button, replacing the small depression for a cable release head found on earlier cameras. (Some examples are found with a sort of adapter plugged into the synch socket, perhaps used to connect the original flashgun offered by Elmo.) The III-D also has a slightly larger magnifying lens, hinged to the rear of the viewing hood.
The new model was advertised in Japanese magazines from March 1951. The early cameras have the same nameplate as the III-C, notably visible in the advertisement in Asahi Camera April 1951. They have an Olympus Zuiko C. taking lens (with red C.) and an Olympus Viewer viewing lens; the serial numbers of the pair are usually close together. The first examples have a plain front standard, with no decorative pattern around the lenses; one of these has a pair of lenses in the 83xxx range. Slightly later examples have a black striated pattern around the viewing lens, which would stay on all subsequent models until the III-F; lens numbers for these cameras are known in the 101xxx and 102xxx range.
|Late Elmoflex III-D, fourth nameplate design, Seikosha-Rapid shutter, Olympus Zuiko C. 7.5cm f/3.5 taking lens no.103411, Olympus Viewer 7.5cm f/3.5 viewing lens no.102950. Picture by Daveelmore. (Image rights)|
The late cameras have the fourth nameplate design, with stepped sides and an ELMOFLEX name in relief, whose letters "E" and "X" are joined by a line. Some examples still have the Olympus Zuiko C. and Olympus Viewer combination, with lens numbers in the 101xxx to 103xxx range. More recent ones have a pair of Olympus Zuiko F.C., with lens numbers either in the 103xxx batch or ranging from 141xxx to 143xxx.
|Advertisement for the Elmoflex III-D in Camera Fan October 1951. (Image rights)|
The earliest documents showing the new nameplate are reportedly dated August 1951. The advertisement placed in the October 1951 issue of Camera Fan shows a camera with Olympus Zuiko C. and Olympus Viewer lenses, numbered in the 102xxx range; similar advertisements were used at the same period in Asahi Camera and Photo Art. (The camera is called "3-D" in the above advertisement, and "III-D" in others.)
The October issue of Camera Fan also has a column on the III-D, reproduced below. The price is given as ¥32,500 (including the case, synch terminal and lens cap) and a flashgun is mentioned for ¥4,250. The document lists various authorized dealers: Hattori Tokei-ten, Misuzu Shōkai and Matsuzakaya. The December 1951 supplement to Photo Art shows the same picture, and gives the price as ¥37,000, case included.
|Elmoflex III-D in Camera Fan October 1951. (Image rights)||Elmoflex III-D in the December 1951 supplement to Photo Art. (Image rights)|
Elmoflex III-E Edit
The Elmoflex III-E has a more robust back latch, copied on contemporary Rolleicord models. There is a screw thread (akin to a tripod thread) and a small hole added to the left side, to attach a dedicated flashgun. Moreover, the decorative pattern around the viewing lens has an added chrome strip. All the cameras have a pair of Zuiko F.C. lenses.
|June 1952.||July 1952 (shows a III-D).||August and September 1952.|
|Advertisements in Shashin Kōgyō. (Image rights)|
|Elmoflex III-E, regular version. From Shashin Kōgyō May 1953. (Image rights)|
The III-E was first announced and advertised in April 1952. The early cameras have the same nameplate as the late III-D. This feature appears in early advertisements dated 1952, and on at least one surviving example.
Regular cameras have the fifth nameplate design, with a different underline of the ELMOFLEX name, separate from the "E" and "X" letters, and the body serial number inscribed in small characters underneath. The depth-of-field scale around the focusing knob was modified at the same time, with chrome plating and a more modern conical shape. Body numbers are known in the 35xxxx range, and lens numbers have been observed in the 14xxxx, 37xxxx and 38xxxx range.
|Internals of the Elmoflex III-E. From Shashin Kōgyō May 1953. (Image rights)|
Manufacturing process Edit
An article in Shashin Kōgyō May 1953 by Sakaki Yoshinobu (榊由信), of the Elmo company, insists on the care taken in designing and assembling the focusing mechanism, to keep the lenses parallel to the film plane and to make the focusing knob turn smoothly. The article shows a few pictures, reproduced below, of workers controlling parallelism and proper focus with a dial caliper and autocollimators.
|Control of parallelism and focus. From Shashin Kōgyō May 1953. (Image rights)|
The next issue of the magazine contains a full photographic report on the Elmo factory, showing the details of the manufacturing process of the Elmoflex camera. The photographs are reproduced below (the name of the photographer is not specified in the document).
|From Shashin Kōgyō June 1953. (Image rights)|
Elmoflex III-F Edit
The Elmoflex III-F has a sports finder inside the viewing hood, with a folding flap at the front and a square eyepiece on the rear. The round eyepiece for eye-level focusing, placed below, is smaller than on previous models, and the magnifying lens is now hinged to the front of the hood. The III-F also has an improved film loading system, with red start marks on either side of the exposure chamber, and no red window underside.
|Elmoflex III-F no.366251. Picture by Elmo Alves. (Image rights)||Advertisement in Asahi Camera September and November 1953. (Image rights)|
The features of the new camera were revealed in the June 1953 issue of Shashin Kōgyō, reproduced below, but the model name was not mentioned. The camera was announced as the III-F in Japanese photography magazines dated August of the same year, and was advertised from August 1953 to October 1954.
|New Elmoflex model (future III-F) featured in Shashin Kōgyō June 1953. (Image rights)|
Body numbers for the Elmoflex III-F are known in the 36xxxx range. The lenses are Zuiko F.C. on all the cameras; lens numbers have been observed in the 400xxx to 415xxx range, and do not have the No. prefix visible on earlier models.
Elmoflex V and VI Edit
Elmoflex V Edit
|Elmoflex V in Shashin Kōgyō September 1954. (Image rights)|
The Elmoflex V has a casing around the viewing and taking lenses, inscribed ELMO COMPANY LTD. at the bottom and SEIKOSHA–RAPID between the two lenses. The speed and aperture are selected by two knobs, and the settings appear in a small window above the viewing lens. There are bayonet attachments on both lenses, and the rest of the features is similar to the III-F.
|Elmoflex V in Shashin Kōgyō January 1955. (Image rights)|
The new model was first announced in the September 1954 issue of Shashin Kōgyō, reproduced on the right, and was advertised in Japanese magazines from October 1954 to May 1955. The camera was priced at ¥36,500.
Serial numbers for the Elmoflex V are known in the 37xxxx range. All the cameras have Zuiko F.C. lenses, with numbers in the 402xxx to 421xxx range.
Elmoflex VI Edit
The Elmoflex VI has recomputed D. Zuiko F.C. f/3.5 lenses and various minor changes. The synch socket has moved to the side of the camera. The focus and advance knobs have a different pattern, and there is a film indicator in the advance knob. The speed and aperture knobs have been modified too, and a small button has been added above the right-hand knob. The release button and advance mechanism are interlocked for double exposure prevention, but the mechanism can be overridden, perhaps by using the setting lever as a secondary release control. It is said that there is an indication in the frame counter, noticing the user if the shutter has been released or not. The back is removable, and the strap lugs have a different shape.
|Elmoflex VI advertised in Asahi Camera November 1955. (Image rights)|
The Elmoflex VI was announced in November 1955, and was advertised in Japanese magazines in November and December of the same year. The November advertisement in Asahi Camera gives the price of ¥28,500. The dramatic price drop — when compared with the previous model — is an indication that the Elmoflex and TLR cameras in general were losing ground against 35mm cameras. The Elmoflex VI is rarer than earlier models, and the only example observed so far is that pictured in Sugiyama (as an "Elmoflex IV").
Elmoflex VI-M Edit
|Elmoflex VI-M no.380261. Picture by itsathird. (Image rights)|
The Elmoflex VI-M has a new version of the Seikosha-Rapid, with M/F/X synchronization. There is a selector with M, F, X positions at the bottom of the shutter casing, and the setting lever is now on the side, above the release button. The camera is otherwise identical to the Elmoflex VI.
The VI-M was advertised in Japanese magazines from January to April 1956. (The January advertisement in Sankei Camera still shows a picture of the model VI.) The only numbers known so far correspond to the camera pictured above, which has body no.380261, and lens numbers in the 42xxxx and 43xxxx range.
Leather case Edit
The early Elmoflex (before the III-C or III-D) normally come with an old type of leather case, with a latch at the front, under the ELMOFLEX embossing.
In the early 1950s, this case was replaced by a more modern type, with a latch on the rear. (The new case design is mentioned in various advertisements, dated 1951 and 1952.) The camera name and Elmo's logo are embossed at the front. At the time of the Elmoflex III-C or early III-D, the name is embossed as Elmoflex in lowercase letters with a fancy capital "E", as on the third nameplate design (see above). At the time of the late III-D, the front part is striated and the name is embossed in capital letters as ELMOFLEX, with the lower branch of the first "E" extending all the way to the "X".
The case for the III-E has a newer shape with an overhang at the top; the front part is smooth and the name ELMOFLEX is embossed in plain block letters. For the III-F and subsequent models, the case has a similar shape but again has a striated pattern at the front.
Original box Edit
The design of the original box used in the 1940s is not known. At the time of the III-D, the box is dark green with golden vermicelli pattern; the name ELMOFLEX appears on the sides, and ELMO on the lid. For the III-E, the box is red dark green (or maybe black); the name ELMOFLEX MODEL III–E and the company name ELMO CO., LTD. are written in golden letters on the side.
- ↑ Elmo official chronology in Japanese, and in English (pdf format).
- ↑ "Kokusan shashinki no kōtei kakaku".
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.334.
- ↑ Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.60.
- ↑ The original document actually has non standard graphical variants for 出来.
- ↑ Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.80.
- ↑ "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" ("Inquiry into Japanese cameras"), item 116, lens item Lb29, shutter item 18-P-23.
- ↑ Kaneko, p.23 of Shashin Kōgyō August 1960; Lewis, p.60.
- ↑ Kaneko, p.23 of Shashin Kōgyō August 1960.
- ↑ Lewis, pp.63 and 67.
- ↑ Kitano, p.49 of Kohga Gekkan June 1949.
- ↑ Kitano, p.49 of Kohga Gekkan June 1949: 質、量共に映写機ほど華々しくはない。戦前もあったカメラであり、比較的長い経験と歴史を持っている割合には、カメラに対する本質的な研究が不十分のように思われることと、レンズ、シャッターに対しても一貫した方針が無いようで、世評の程も余り苦しい芳しくはないようである。
- ↑ Kitano, p.49 of Kohga Gekkan June 1949: 併し決して悪いカメラではないので、今一段の研究と改良を積めば立派なものであろう。
- ↑ Column in Photo Art December 1949, p.41.
- ↑ Sugiyama, items 2006 and 2098; McKeown, p.263 (though the camera pictured as an "Elmoflex Junior" has K.O.L. lenses); this page and this page at Neco's Collection.
- ↑ Example pictured in this page, this page and this page at Neco's Collection.
- ↑ Example pictured in Sugiyama, item 2006.
- ↑ Example observed in an online auction.
- ↑ Heavy ELMOFLEX marking: example pictured in Sugiyama, item 2098. Thin ELMOFLEX marking: example pictured in this page and this page at Neco's Collection.
- ↑ Picture in this page at Neco's Collection.
- ↑ Example pictured in this page at www.tlr-cameras.com.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9 Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.347.
- ↑ Example pictured in Sugiyama, item 2099.
- ↑ The column in the 1951 camera annual by Nihon Camera, p.7, mentions a "shutter safety device" (シャッター安全装置), a term sometimes used to describe a shutter lock.
- ↑ Column in the 1951 camera annual by Nihon Camera, p.7.
- ↑ Column in Photo Art January 1951, p.37.
- ↑ Example pictured in Sugiyama, item 2100.
- ↑ The larger magnifying lens is mentioned as a new feature of the III-D in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.347.
- ↑ Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.122.
- ↑ Example observed in an online auction.
- ↑ Example pictured in Watakushi no ni-gan-refu kamera-ten, p.27, and example pictured in this page at TLR Milestone.
- ↑ Examples pictured in this page, in Sugiyama, item 2101, and observed in online auctions.
- ↑ Example pictured in this page at Neco's Collection, and examples observed in online auctions.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.347, says that the first document showing the new nameplate is the advertisement in Asahi Camera August 1951. See also the advertisement in Asahi Camera October 1951 reproduced on p.122 of the same book.
- ↑ Advertisement in Camera Fan October 1951, p.62.
- ↑ Advertisement in Photo Art September 1951, p.5, reproduced in this article, and advertisement in Asahi Camera October 1951, reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.122.
- ↑ Column in Camera Fan October 1951, p.41.
- ↑ Column in the December 1951 supplement to Photo Art, p.12.
- ↑ Advertisements in Shashin Kōgyō June 1952, p.4, August 1952, p.5, and September 1952, p.49 (that dated July 1952, p.8, mistakenly shows a III-D). See also the advertisement in Asahi Camera June 1952 reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.122.
- ↑ Example pictured in Sugiyama, item 2102.
- ↑ Sakaki, pp.244–5 of Shashin Kōgyō May 1953.
- ↑ Start marks are mentioned for the III-E by mistake in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.347, and in Kawamura, p.66 of Kurashikku Kamera Senka no.62.
- ↑ Sugiyama, item 2104, repeated in McKeown, p.263, and in some websites.
- ↑ See Japanese numerals in Wikipedia.
- ↑ Column in Shashin Kōgyō September 1954, p.179.
- ↑ Column in Shashin Kōgyō January 1955, p.62.
- ↑ Advertisement in Asahi Camera November 1955, p.203, reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.122.
- ↑ Example pictured in Sugiyama, item 2104.
- ↑ Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.378.
- ↑ Advertisement reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.224.
- ↑ Examples observed in online auctions.
- ↑ Advertisements in Asahi Camera April 1951, October 1951 and June 1952, reproduced in Kokusan kamera no rekishi, p.122; advertisement in Camera Fan October 1951, p.62; advertisements in Shashin Kōgyō June 1952, p.4, July 1952, p.8, August 1952, p.5, and September 1952, p.49.
- ↑ Examples observed in online auctions.
- ↑ Example observed in an online auction.
- ↑ Examples observed in online auctions.
- ↑ Examples observed in online auctions.
- ↑ Example observed in an online auction.
- ↑ Example observed in an online auction.
Original documents Edit
- Asahi Camera. Advertisements by Elmo-sha:
- September 1953, p.103;
- November 1953, p.73;
- November 1955, p.203.
- Camera Fan October 1951:
- "Kokusan kamera daitokushū" (国産カメラ大特集, Large special issue on Japanese cameras). Pp.25–44.
- Advertisement by Elmo-sha on p.62.
- Kaneko Jutarō (金子寿太郎), of the Elmo company. "Erumo kamera no shinten" (エルモカメラの伸展, Expansion of Elmo cameras). In Shashin Kōgyō no.100, August 1960. P.23.
- Kitano Kunio (北野邦雄). "Mittsu no kokusan ōtomāto" (三つの国産オートマート, Three Japanese Automat). In Kohga Gekkan vol.8 no.6, June 1949. Pp.48–53.
- "Kokusan shashinki no genjōchōsa" (国産写真機ノ現状調査, Inquiry into Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of April 1943. Reproduced in Supuringu kamera de ikou: Zen 69 kishu no shōkai to tsukaikata (スプリングカメラでいこう: 全69機種の紹介と使い方, Let's try spring cameras: Presentation and use of 69 machines). Tokyo: Shashinkogyo Syuppan-sha, 2004. ISBN 4-87956-072-3. Pp.180–7. Item 116.
- "Kokusan shashinki no kōtei kakaku" (国産写真機の公定価格, Set prices of the Japanese cameras), listing Japanese camera production as of October 25, 1940 and setting the retail prices from December 10, 1940. Published in Asahi Camera January 1941 and reproduced in Shōwa 10—40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10〜40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935—1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Pp.108—9. (The Elmoflex does not appear in this document.)
- Nihon Camera special issue Kamera Nenkan 1951-nenban (カメラ年鑑1951年版, Camera annual, 1951 edition). October 1950.
- "Erumofurekkusu III-C" (エルモフレックスIIIC, Elmoflex III-C). P.7.
- "Kokusan kamera no shurui to seinō ichiran" (国産カメラの種類と性能一覧, Table of Japanese camera types and features). Pp.79–81.
|Advertisement in Photo Art September 1951. (Image rights)|
- Photo Art December 1949. "Ōru kokusan kamera" (オール国産カメラ, All of Japanese cameras). Pp.34–41.
- Photo Art no.20, January 1951. "Kokusan kamera no kentō" (国産カメラの検討, Inquiry on Japanese cameras). Pp.36–40.
- Photo Art no.27, September 1951. Advertisement by Elmo-sha on p.5.
- Photo Art 12-gatsu-gō furoku Saishin Kokusan Shashinki Sō-katarogu (フォトアート12月號附録最新国産写真機総カタログ, General catalogue of the latest Japanese cameras, supplement to the December issue). December 1951. P.12.
- Sakaki Yoshinobu (榊由信), of the Elmo company. "Erumofurekkusu" (エルモフレックス, Elmoflex). In Shashin Kōgyō no.12, May 1953. Pp.244–5.
- Shashin Kōgyō. Advertisements by Elmo-sha:
- no.1, June 1952, p.4;
- no.2, July 1952, p.8;
- no.3, August 1952, p.5;
- no.4, September 1952, p.49.
- Shashin Kōgyō no.13, June 1953. "Erumo kōjō kengaku" (エルモ工場見学, Visiting the Elmo factory). Pp.336–9.
- Shashin Kōgyō no.28, September 1954. "Erumofurekkusu V-gata" (エルモフレックスV型, Elmoflex V). P.179.
- Shashin Kōgyō no.31, January 1955. "Kokusan kamera sōran" (日本のカメラ全貌・二眼レフカメラ・スプリングカメラ, Panorama of Japanese cameras). P.62.
Recent sources Edit
- Asahi Camera (アサヒカメラ) editorial staff. Shōwa 10–40nen kōkoku ni miru kokusan kamera no rekishi (昭和10–40年広告にみる国産カメラの歴史, Japanese camera history as seen in advertisements, 1935–1965). Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1994. ISBN 4-02-330312-7. Items 29, 411–7 and 1134. (See also the advertisement for item 156.)
- Kawamura Yukimasa (川村幸正). "Erumofurekkusu III-D o tanoshimu" (エルモフレックスIIIDを楽しむ, Let's enjoy the Elmoflex III-D). Kamera Rebyū: Kurashikku Kamera Senka (カメラレビュー クラシックカメラ専科) / Camera Review: All about Historical Cameras no.62, December 2001. ISBN 4-257-13040-7. Tokushū: Tanoshiku tsukau nigan-refu (特集:楽しく使う二眼レフ, special issue on TLR cameras). Pp.65–7. (The camera is actually an early III-E.)
- Lewis, Gordon, ed. The History of the Japanese Camera. Rochester, N.Y.: George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography & Film, 1991. ISBN 0-935398-17-1 (paper), ISBN 0-935398-16-3 (hard). Pp.60, 62–3, 67, 71, 80, 82 and 87.
- McKeown, James M. and Joan C. McKeown's Price Guide to Antique and Classic Cameras, 12th Edition, 2005-2006. USA, Centennial Photo Service, 2004. ISBN 0-931838-40-1 (hardcover). ISBN 0-931838-41-X (softcover). P.263.
- Sugiyama, Kōichi (杉山浩一); Naoi, Hiroaki (直井浩明); Bullock, John R. The Collector's Guide to Japanese Cameras. 国産カメラ図鑑 (Kokusan kamera zukan). Tokyo: Asahi Sonorama, 1985. ISBN 4-257-03187-5. Items 2006 and 2098–104.
- Watakushi no ni-gan-refu kamera-ten (私の二眼レフカメラ展, Exhibition of twin lens reflex cameras). Tokyo: JCII Camera Museum, 1992. (Exhibition catalogue, no ISBN number.) P.27.
- Elmoflex page in Barry Toogood's tlr-cameras.com
- Elmoflex in the camera page of Patty Moussali's website (some pictures of the website were taken with the Elmoflex)
- Elmo company profile (pdf format), at mrelmo.co.uk (mentioning the Elmoflex as released in 1938)
- Elmoflex in Neco's camera collection:
- Elmoflex III-D and Elmoflex V at TLR Milestone
- Elmoflex III-F at Puppy's Island
- Elmoflex repair notes at Kan's Room
- Elmoflex at Chotto Pinboke
- Elmoflex III-F at Doru's bar blog
- Elmoflex in a TLR page in Diwa's photo site
- Elmoflex III-F at Otowa no nigan-refu
- Elmoflex specifications at Japan Family Camera
- Elmoflex at Shashin wo tanoshimu
- Pictures taken with an Elmoflex at Nobuo Honda's website
- Advertisement for the Elmoflex dated 1954, reproduced in Shashin-Bako
- Chronology in the Elmo official website (mentioning the Elmoflex as released in 1938)