Anonymous documents published in Japan before January 1st, 1946 are in the public domain in the following jurisdictions:
- Japan, where the copyright for an anonymous or corporate work expires 50 years after its first publication;
- the European Union, where the "shorter term" rule applies to foreign works, and a foreign document which is already in the public domain in its home country is not protected;
- the United States, where a foreign work already in the public domain in its home country as of January 1st, 1996 is not protected.
Advertising material published by a company follows the same rules as an anonymous document, unless it is explicitly signed by an individual or some individual later claims to be the original author.
- ↑ Copyright law of Japan (from the CRIC website), chapter II, section 4.
- ↑ Council Directive 93/98/EEC of 29 October 1993 harmonizing the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights, art.7.
- ↑ Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States, 1 January 2007, by Peter B. Hirtle.